The Complete Guide to Jackfruit Farming in India

The Complete Guide to Jackfruit Farming in India

Jackfruit, also known as Artocarpus heterophyllus, is considered a wild fruit in India. Therefore, it is not promoted as a commercial crop. However, its cultivation is growing day by day due to its market demand and health benefits. Jackfruit was originally native to India, but now it is cultivated across tropical regions. Jackfruit belongs to the Moracea farming, and it is grown in Malaysia, Burma and some parts of Brazil. Wild jackfruit, on the other hand, is grown in the western ghats of India. One can consume jackfruit as a fresh fruit or in the form of some special dishes.

Major Jackfruit Production States in India

Major Jackfruit Production States in India

In India, states like Assam, Bihar, Kerala, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal are the key jackfruit producers.

Climate Requirement in Jackfruit Farming

The arid and warm, humid plains of south India are suitable for jackfruit farming. It thrives in moist, hilly slopes at an elevation of 1400 to 1500 meters. Frost and cold weather are not good for jackfruit farming as this can damage the tree and fruit growth. Therefore, areas with these climate conditions are not favourable for jack fruit cultivation.

Soil Requirement for Jackfruit Farming

Jackfruit requires well-drained sandy loam soil with a pH value of 6.0 to 7.5. Since jackfruit plantations cannot tolerate moisture stress, the selected land should be well drained. The presence of chlorine and lime in the soil is tolerable to some extent. For optimal Jackfruit tree growth, cultivators can add nutrients to the soil using organic fertilizers. Additionally, the lands near river beds are considered ideal for jackfruit cultivation.

Land Preparation and Planting in Jackfruit Farming

Land preparation is a must for jackfruit farming. It helps remove weeds from earlier crops and make soil reach fine tilth. For land preparation, jackfruit cultivators can use a Preet Tractor with appropriate farming implements. In addition, they should prepare the land so that water stagnation does not happen in the field.

Farmers can proceed further by creating pits of 1 cubic meter size at a distance of 6 meters. They can fill those pits with topsoil mixed with farmyard manure. After that, the grafts should be planted in the centre of the pits from June to September. To avoid any damage at the joint, farmers can use proper staking. Besides, they can use coconut leaves to protect grafts and mulch the basins to safeguard them.

Irrigation Requirements

Generally, jackfruit is grown under rainfed conditions. Therefore, there is no specific irrigation schedule for farming. However, they need regular watering during the initial 2 to 3 years. These trees are sensitive to drought conditions, so it is necessary to water them during hot weather conditions. Cultivators can use a ring system to water jackfruit trees. The frequency of irrigation depends on the soil moisture holding capacity and weather conditions. In the rainy season, there is no need to water jackfruit trees. In case of floods or heavy rains, make sure to drain out the land. The water stagnation can impact tree growth and fruit development.

Weed Control and Training in Jackfruit Farming

Farmers can practice general weeding and mulching to ensure proper plant growth.

Intercropping and Plant Care in Jackfruit Farming

Farmers can consider having intercrops like pulses or vegetables before the fruit-bearing stage. Additionally, to care for and protect jackfruit trees, mulching can be done to retain soil moisture and reduce soil erosion. Once trunk size starts increasing, active female buds begin to develop from the trunk & scaffold branches. This type of fruit-bearing habit is known as cauliflorus. If there is no fence in the field, cultivators should make sure that these fruit buds don’t get damaged. They should prevent cattle from rubbing their body against the trunk. Besides, goats also like to eat jackfruit leaves; hence, tree protection is highly required.

Manures and Fertilizers

In jackfruit farming, fertilizers should be applied during the monsoon season (rainy season). If the crop is irrigated, fertilizers should be applied in split doses twice a year, June to July and September to October. The fertilizers and manures should be applied in a circular trench around 50 cm away from the trunk of the tree. To bring fertilizers and manures to the main field, farmers can use a VST tractor attached to a trolley.

Pests and Disease Control

The most common pest in jackfruit farming is the brown weevil. It bores into the tender buds, shoots, and fruits. To control this pest, farmers destroy the infected buds and fruits. If they want to treat this pest chemically, spraying monocrotophos (0.035%) is highly beneficial.

Fruit rot is the most common disease found in jackfruit cultivation. Due to this disease, young and tender fruits fall prematurely. The spraying of Bavistin (0.05%), Fytolan (0.2%) or M.45 (0.2%) at 2-week intervals during fruit set or growth is effective. Farmers can use an upcoming tractor to spray pesticides on the crop. The upcoming tractor price, however, should be affordable for farmers. 

Harvesting in Jackfruit Farming

Jackfruit is ready to harvest after 7 years of planting. On the grafted jackfruit plants, the fruits start to grow in the 4th year. There’s a jackfruit variety in Singapore that grows from seedlings and starts to bear fruits in 3rd year. Jackfruits’ availability in the market remains from March to June.

Health Benefits of Jackfruit

Jackfruit is a tropical fruit native to South and Southeast Asia, celebrated for its immense size and unique flavour profile. It is the largest tree-borne fruit, sometimes weighing up to 40 kilograms. The exterior is spiky and green, while the interior contains yellow, sweet, and aromatic pods. These pods are rich in dietary fibre, vitamins A and C, and potassium, making jackfruit a nutritious choice. Beyond its culinary uses, jackfruit is also valued in traditional medicine and agroforestry, contributing to soil health and biodiversity. Increasingly popular worldwide, jackfruit is celebrated for its versatility, nutritional benefits, and ecological contributions.

The Yied of Jackfruit

In jackfruit farming, its yield entirely depends on soil type, weather conditions, variety and incorporated farming practices. Still, you can expect an average yield of 25 to 100 units per plant. Each fruit can be 10 to 30 kg in weight.



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