Complete Guide to Kidney Bean Farming in India: Techniques and Tips

Kidney beans, called chilli beans, derive their name from their kidney-shaped form and deep red hue. They encompass folic acid, vitamin B6, magnesium, and antioxidants. Their sizeable, rich red seeds mimic kidneys, giving them distinct nomenclature. Scientifically categorised under Phaseolus vulgaris, the common bean family, these reddish-brown kidney beans are prevalent in soups and vegetable dishes. 

Kidney beans are commonly found in Mexican and Indian cuisine, especially curries. In this blog, we’ll explore about technical aspects, challenges and benefits of Kidney beans. 

Varieties of Kidney Beans

Kidney beans come in various colors, sizes, and flavours. This variety has led to them being grouped into different categories based on their special traits.

  1. Red Kidney Bean: The red kidney bean, also called Rajma in India, catches attention with its deep red hue and kidney-like shape. It’s a favourite for adding colour to meals without making them too spicy.
  2. Light Speckled Kidney Bean: This kind has a gentle speckled look and works well in both hot and cold dishes. It’s adaptable in the kitchen and a top pick for many families.
  3. Red Speckled Kidney Bean: With red speckles on a lighter background, this kidney bean variety offers a unique visual appeal. It’s known for its robust flavour and versatility in dishes.
  4. White Kidney Bean: Known as cannellini in Italy, lobia in India, and safaid lobia in Pakistan, white kidney beans are valued for their gentle flavour and knack for soaking up the deliciousness of seasonings.

These are only a handful of kidney bean types grown around the world. Farmers choose varieties based on what people want nearby, how well they grow in the weather, and what sells in the market.

Kidney Beans Cultivation

Climatic Requirement

Kidney beans do well in warm and moderate climates, with temperatures around 24°C to 35°C. They need regular rainfall of 75 to 175 cm throughout the year. For the best growth, the soil should be around 32°C to 34°C.

Soil Requirement

Kidney beans flourish in dry, well-draining soil. Rajma farming thrives in moderate loam soil. For heavier soil types, adding organic manure or sand enhances conditions. Aim for a soil pH of 6.0 to 7.0 for optimal Kidney bean growth. For instance, Eicher 188 Price can efficiently support these farming needs.

Land Preparation 

For red kidney beans to grow well, the soil must be prepared finely and have enough moisture for the seeds to sprout. To achieve this, the soil can be smooth by plowing deeply a few times and then harrowing and planking it 3 to 4 times.

Seed Rate In Kidney Farming

Use 30-35kg of seeds per acre for early sown types. For pole-type varieties, plant them 1 meter apart in hills, with 3-4 plants per hill and a seed rate of 10-12kg per acre.

Growing Season of Kidney Farming

For the spring season, the best time for Kidney beans cultivation is February-March; for the Kharif season, it is sown during May-June. In Punjab, some farmers plant Kidney beans in the last week of January. To get  early sown varieties, use 0-15 cm spacing between plants and 45-60 cm between rows.

Spacing For Kidney Beans Farming

The gap between rows is approximately 30 cm, while the distance between individual plants ranges from 10 cm to 15 cm. Sow seeds at a depth of 6 cm to 7 cm to facilitate moisture absorption from the soil.

Manure and Fertilization

Around 2-3 weeks after planting, apply organic fertiliser (like composted manure) to the soil. Place half the nitrogen and all the phosphorus below the seed in the planting row.

Irrigation of Kidney Beans 

Normally, red kidney beans need water four times: 25, 50, 75, and 90 days after planting seeds. To keep plants dry and prevent fungi, avoid watering from above. You can use basin or drip irrigation methods to grow red kidney beans.

Harvesting of Kidney Beans

In about 100-140 days, the time for harvesting kidney beans approaches, varying with the type and your location. As the pods dry and change to yellow, stop watering the plant. If it’s not too humid and there’s enough space between plants, the beans might dry on the plant itself.

Conclusion

Kidney beans have evolved from traditional staples to thriving and economically important agricultural endeavours. Like the Eicher 242 Price, they come in diverse varieties and are cultivated using adaptable techniques. Their nutritional richness exemplifies the blend of tradition and innovation.

As people’s tastes change and health consciousness rises, kidney beans remain a vibrant ingredient in global cuisine. Simultaneously, they play a pivotal role in supporting farmers’ livelihoods, much like the reliable performance of the Eicher 242 tractor.

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